West Virginia teachers show power of collective action

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Teachers in West Virginia won a victory for working people recently after a nine-day strike forced lawmakers and their Governor to raise the pay of all public employees by 5 percent, agree to fix problems with the state’s health insurance system and maintain other employee protections.

The victory for the West Virginia teachers came shortly after many pundits predicted the downfall of public sector unions in the wake of an expected unfavorable decision from the Untied States Supreme Court in the Janus case. Many commentators pointed out that West Virginia was already a “right to work” state where unions can not compel the employees they represent to pay dues. 

The West Virginia teachers strike shows the power of collective action among employees. I have long advocated that employees exercise their rights under the National Labor Relations Act to work together to address the terms and conditions of their employment. Employees don’t need a union to exercise these rights. Collective action on the job can address bullying by a boss and can even help employees accommodate a disability.

The success of the West Virginia teachers seems to have encouraged teachers in Oklahoma to plan a strike as well. The example of the West Virginia teachers should also show employees that they can deal with smaller but no less serious issues with their employer or on their worksite.

The offices of Rehm, Bennett & Moore, which also sponsors the Trucker Lawyers website, are located in Lincoln and Omaha, Nebraska. Five attorneys represent plaintiffs in workers’ compensation, personal injury, employment and Social Security disability claims. The firm’s lawyers have combined experience of more than 95 years of practice representing injured workers and truck drivers in Nebraska, Iowa and other states with Nebraska and Iowa jurisdiction. The lawyers regularly represent hurt truck drivers and often sue Crete Carrier Corporation, K&B Trucking, Werner Enterprises, UPS, and FedEx. Lawyers in the firm hold licenses in Nebraska and Iowa and are active in groups such as the College of Workers’ Compensation Lawyers, Workers' Injury Law & Advocacy Group (WILG), American Association for Justice (AAJ), the Nebraska Association of Trial Attorneys (NATA), and the American Board of Trial Advocates (ABOTA). We have the knowledge, experience and toughness to win rightful compensation for people who have been injured or mistreated.

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Truckers Call Baloney On Bloomberg View

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Truckers were quick to criticize a Bloomberg View piece about the effect of shortage of truck drivers on the economy that our firm posted on our Facebook page.

Hedge fund manager Conor Sen made a valid point that the lack of truck drivers could drive up the cost of goods and slow down the economy. Sen went on to argue that this shortage will be exacerbated by the imminent automation of trucking. Why train for a job that will soon be eliminated?

There are two problems with his article.

Truckers pointed out that the shortage of drivers could be attributed to bad working conditions within a trucking. Sen didn’t address this in his article where he portrayed the driver shortage as something that just happened.

Poor working conditions for truckers are somewhat of a function of employment laws. For example, truck drivers are largely exempt from the Fair Labor Standards Act. While better laws for truckers would probably help attract more drivers, the trucking industry is fighting state law efforts to improve trucker wages. The wages of professional drivers are being further eroded by the use of contract drivers who are wrongfully classified as contractors rather than employers.

Secondly trucking industry observers believe automation is far from imminent. Professional drivers do a lot more than just drive. Even some tech industry boosters in the business press admit that automation may not be imminent. Increasing automation in truck driving could benefit drivers by making driving safer. Most airplanes fly by autopilot, but planes still have pilots.

In short, the trucker shortage isn’t just something that happened. It is driven by poor working conditions for truckers. Those poor working conditions are caused in part by bad laws which seem to be getting worse. It’s also not fair or reasonable to argue the supposed imminent arrival of automation to truck driving is causing a truck driver shortage. Automation of trucking is far from imminent, but increased automation may make trucking safer which would make it a more attractive job, which in turn would increase the supply of drivers.

The offices of Rehm, Bennett & Moore, which also sponsors the Trucker Lawyers website, are located in Lincoln and Omaha, Nebraska. Five attorneys represent plaintiffs in workers’ compensation, personal injury, employment and Social Security disability claims. The firm’s lawyers have combined experience of more than 95 years of practice representing injured workers and truck drivers in Nebraska, Iowa and other states with Nebraska and Iowa jurisdiction. The lawyers regularly represent hurt truck drivers and often sue Crete Carrier Corporation, K&B Trucking, Werner Enterprises, UPS, and FedEx. Lawyers in the firm hold licenses in Nebraska and Iowa and are active in groups such as the College of Workers’ Compensation Lawyers, Workers' Injury Law & Advocacy Group (WILG), American Association for Justice (AAJ), the Nebraska Association of Trial Attorneys (NATA), and the American Board of Trial Advocates (ABOTA). We have the knowledge, experience and toughness to win rightful compensation for people who have been injured or mistreated.

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Experience Of New Virginia Legislator Points To Difficulty Of Multi-State Claims For Injured Workers

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Democrat Lee Carter, a democratic socialist, won an election to represent Virginia’s 50th District in the state’s House of Delegates.

Lee Carter took a bad experience with a work injury and turned it into motivation to win election to the Virginia legislature last November. But the nature of Carter’s bad experience with his work injury shows why electing true worker advocates to state legislatures may not be enough to protect injured workers.

Carter was a Virginia resident who was injured in Illinois working for a Georgia company. Carter attempted to bring his claim in Virginia but he was unable to do so because of lack of jurisdiction. Tennessee lawyer Denty Cheatham pointed out on the WILG listserv that Carter’s difficulty in bringing a claim was why national standards are needed for workers compensation.

So-called federalization is controversial in the world of workers’ compensation. Workers’ compensation is a creature of state law by what amounts to a fluke of legal history. When workers compensation laws were passed in the 1910s, the Supreme Court held that regulation of workplace safety was outside of the federal government’s ability to regulate interstate commerce but was within the so-called police power of the states.

Two decades later during the New Deal era, the Supreme Court expanded the definition of interstate commerce in the 1930s which allowed Congress to enact laws impacting the workplace such as the Fair Labor Standards Act, Title VII and the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA).

OSHA was implemented in the 1970s as concerns about the adequacy of state-based workers compensation systems arose from organized labor and the civil rights movement. Part of the OSHA Act was a National Commission that called for minimum standards for workers compensation claims. Part of having standardized state laws would mean that state laws would be more uniform and multi-state claims would be easier to navigate for injured workers.

Our firm is part of WILG which is a national organization of workers’ compensation lawyers. Multi-state or multi-jurisdictional claims are probably one of the most discussed topic on the WILG listserv. Mainly lawyers discuss which state’s have the best laws for a particular case. In some circumstances workers can also bring claims in and collect benefits in multiple states. The current system works for knowledgeable lawyers, but it can fail injured workers who may not even be able to bring claim because of questions over jurisdiction.

Multi-state claims can also subvert democratic rule. A worker has some input over workers compensation laws in the state where he or she lives and votes through their respective state legislatures. A worker who is forced to bring a claim in another state does not have that influence unless they happen to be among the 6 percent of private sector employees represented by a union. But even then, it may be burdensome to bring a claim in another state.

But workers have a say over national laws through their Congressional representatives. Minimum standards and some uniformity in state workers’ compensation laws would give injured workers more say in the types of benefits they would receive if they were hurt out of their home state or hurt for an out of state employer. Minimum standards legislation would also draw more national attention to the short coming of various state workers’ compensation laws. Renewed pushes for federal standards for workers’ compensation happened in the early Obama administration and towards the end of the Obama administration. National standards for workers’ compensation legislation will probably have to wait for a change in the partisan makeup of the two elected branches of the federal government.

The offices of Rehm, Bennett & Moore, which also sponsors the Trucker Lawyers website, are located in Lincoln and Omaha, Nebraska. Five attorneys represent plaintiffs in workers’ compensation, personal injury, employment and Social Security disability claims. The firm’s lawyers have combined experience of more than 95 years of practice representing injured workers and truck drivers in Nebraska, Iowa and other states with Nebraska and Iowa jurisdiction. The lawyers regularly represent hurt truck drivers and often sue Crete Carrier Corporation, K&B Trucking, Werner Enterprises, UPS, and FedEx. Lawyers in the firm hold licenses in Nebraska and Iowa and are active in groups such as the College of Workers’ Compensation Lawyers, Workers' Injury Law & Advocacy Group (WILG), American Association for Justice (AAJ), the Nebraska Association of Trial Attorneys (NATA), and the American Board of Trial Advocates (ABOTA). We have the knowledge, experience and toughness to win rightful compensation for people who have been injured or mistreated.

This entry was posted in Government, Legislation, Workers' Compensation, Workplace Injury and tagged , , , , , .

Discount Rate And Life Expectancy: What Most People Forget When Valuing A Workers’ Compensation Case

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What’s my case worth?

I hear that question a lot when I meet a new client. In a workers’ compensation case I tell them it depends on many factors; How much were you earning when you were hurt, what part of your body was injured, how severely you hurt, where you live, how much education you have, whether you can return back to your old job, etc.

There are a lot of variables. But in cases where an employee has some reasonable chance of being found to be permanently and totally disabled, in other words unable to find work from their work injury, there are two constants effect the value of any settlement: discount rate and life expectancy.

Discount rate is synonymous with the time value of money. In short, a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future. This is important in workers compensation because if a worker is found to be permanently and totally disabled then they will be paid weekly benefit checks for the rest of their life. Under Nebraska law, that benefit check will not increase over time. The question then becomes how much will the value of that money decrease overtime. The discount rate is the expected return on investment on the money. The higher the expected return on investment, the higher the discount rate. But the higher the discount rate, the less a lump sum settlement is worth in present dollars.

An award of permanent and total disability is a form of a pension. Abnormally low interest rates in the aftermath of the financial crises have raised concerns about investment returns for pensions. The Nebraska Workers Compensation Court has used a 5 percent discount rate to value awarded permanent and total disability benefits for at least the last 12 years. But the expected rate of return on investments, as measured by interest rates of declined over the last 12 years. Lump sum payments, like workers compensation settlements, based on a 5 percent long term interest rate undervalue those payments.

For example, a 30 year US Treasury bond yields roughly 2 ¾ percent. If a 50 year-old worker earning $600 per week is found to be permanently and totally disabled, the present value of an award of permanent and total disability would be $334,000 using the 5 percent discount rate and using the court’s life expectancy tables showing a 31.4 year life expectancy. But if the court used the 30 year bond yield as the discount rate, that same award of permanent and total disability would be worth $439,000.

The issue of discount rate and case valuations isn’t widely discussed in Nebraska, but it was a contentious issue in the United Kingdom when the government cut their discount rate in personal injury claims, called the Ogden rate, by 3.25% in February 2017. The Ogden rate was increased by .75-1.75 percent in September 2017 under pressure from insurance companies.

The other variable in valuing an award of permanent and total disability is life expectancy. The Nebraska Workers Compensation Court uses a general life expectancy table to value awards of permanent and total disability that doesn’t vary by gender or nationality/race. The CDC breaks down life expectancy along those lines. Men and African-Americans have shorter life expectancies so they would actually benefit from the use of the Nebraska Workers Compensation Court life expectancy tables. Women and Hispanics tend to live longer so they would not benefit by the use of the court tables. For example, a 50 year-old Hispanic woman is expected to live 35.9 years whereas the Nebraska Workers Compensation Court just assumes a 50 year old has a 31.4 year life expectancy.  Use of the court’s life expectancy tables for a 50 year-old Hispanic woman earning $600 per week at the time of her injury could undervalue an award of permanent and total disability by about $18,000.

But workers who have a reasonable chance of being found to be permanently and totally disabled have other factors to think about when it comes to valuing any settlement of their claim. First, an insurer/employer only has to pay weekly benefits rather than a lump sum of money if a court finds a worker is permanently and totally disabled. They are free to use whatever discount rates and life expectancies they chose in valuing a claim for a settlement.  Court rules about discount rates and life expectancy only come into play when an injured worker wants to take a lump sum settlement on an awarded finding of permanent and total disability.

Secondly many employees who could potentially be awarded permanent and total disability benefits are also awarded social security disability benefits. Social security disability benefits payments can be reduced or offset by any workers compensation benefits received. An offset can have the practical effect of capping the value of any settlement based on the probability of a worker being awarded permanent and total disability benefits. 

The offices of Rehm, Bennett & Moore, which also sponsors the Trucker Lawyers website, are located in Lincoln and Omaha, Nebraska. Five attorneys represent plaintiffs in workers’ compensation, personal injury, employment and Social Security disability claims. The firm’s lawyers have combined experience of more than 95 years of practice representing injured workers and truck drivers in Nebraska, Iowa and other states with Nebraska and Iowa jurisdiction. The lawyers regularly represent hurt truck drivers and often sue Crete Carrier Corporation, K&B Trucking, Werner Enterprises, UPS, and FedEx. Lawyers in the firm hold licenses in Nebraska and Iowa and are active in groups such as the College of Workers’ Compensation Lawyers, Workers' Injury Law & Advocacy Group (WILG), American Association for Justice (AAJ), the Nebraska Association of Trial Attorneys (NATA), and the American Board of Trial Advocates (ABOTA). We have the knowledge, experience and toughness to win rightful compensation for people who have been injured or mistreated.

This entry was posted in Workers' Compensation, Workplace Injury and tagged , , , , .

Nebraska Fails To Increase 2018 Mileage Reimbursement Rate

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Mileage reimbursement for injured workers in Nebraska stays flat in 2018 despite increase in IRS rate

Injured workers travelling to medical appointments and vocational rehabilitation programs in Nebraska will not see an increase in reimbursement for mileage even though the Internal Revenue Service reimbursement rate will rise by $.01 per mile to $.545 per mile starting on January 1, 2018.

In a press release, the Nebraska Workers Compensation court stated the mileage re-imbursement would stay steady at $.535 per mile consistent with the reimbursement rate for Nebraska state employees. The failure to increase mileage rates will particularly impact injured workers in rural areas who need to travel to urban areas to seek treatment or get examined by specialists. The week before Christmas I travelled to the Nebraska Sand Hills region to visit a few clients. I visited a client in Ord, Nebraska who has to see a specialist in Kearney, Nebraska. The failure to raise the mileage re-imbursement rate will cost that client $1.41 per trip.

I visited another client in Loup City, Nebraska who is scheduled for an independent medical examination in Omaha in a few weeks. The failure to raise the mileage rate will cost that client $3.22 for the trip.

Nebraska’s refusal to raise the mileage reimbursement rate for state employees to match the IRS rate is consistent with efforts by the Ricketts administration to reduce state employment costs by a hiring freeze for state employees and end cost of living increases for non-unionized state employees.

The Nebraska Workers Compensation Court also announced the maximum benefit rate will increase from $817 per week to $831 per week. Unlike the mileage rate, the maximum benefit rate is set by statute in Nebraska. In Nebraska we take for granted that the maximum benefit rate will generally increase over time. But that isn’t the case in every state. In 2017 a judge in Alabama ruled that their state’s workers compensation system was unconstitutional because it had not increased the maximum benefit in nearly 30 years.

The offices of Rehm, Bennett & Moore, which also sponsors the Trucker Lawyers website, are located in Lincoln and Omaha, Nebraska. Five attorneys represent plaintiffs in workers’ compensation, personal injury, employment and Social Security disability claims. The firm’s lawyers have combined experience of more than 95 years of practice representing injured workers and truck drivers in Nebraska, Iowa and other states with Nebraska and Iowa jurisdiction. The lawyers regularly represent hurt truck drivers and often sue Crete Carrier Corporation, K&B Trucking, Werner Enterprises, UPS, and FedEx. Lawyers in the firm hold licenses in Nebraska and Iowa and are active in groups such as the College of Workers’ Compensation Lawyers, Workers' Injury Law & Advocacy Group (WILG), American Association for Justice (AAJ), the Nebraska Association of Trial Attorneys (NATA), and the American Board of Trial Advocates (ABOTA). We have the knowledge, experience and toughness to win rightful compensation for people who have been injured or mistreated.

This entry was posted in employment law, Workers' Compensation, Workplace Injury and tagged , , .

I’M A 10!!!!

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This article will not be discussing Bo Derek’s memorable jog down a beach in that memorable movie of the same name.  Instead it discusses the reliability of pain scales in the context of injury cases, a much less interesting topic!

According to the Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, “Though the accuracy of the 5th vital sign for pain assessment is moderate, it is much lower in practice than under ideal research circumstances. Uniquely, we found that nurses may not always use the 0 to 10 scale to properly quantify pain levels and that informal screening practice leads to underestimation. Efforts to improve routine pain management can confidently use NRS, but provider training, education, and monitoring in screening techniques are needed, as are efforts to link the 5th vital sign to clinician action for better pain managementReading between the lines, this organization found nurses and doctors need more education in order for pain scales to be reliably used.

Typically, patients are asked to rate their pain from 0-10.  However, how those numbers are described seems to vary widely.  One clinician may describe a “10” as the worst pain imaginable, while another may describe it as the worst pain you have ever felt.  Of course, that can result in very different ratings depending on one’s history of prior injury and pain tolerance.  The results may be further complicated by cultural distortions, difficulties in interpretation, psychological factors including depression, education level which could impact understanding and an individuals pain tolerance in general.   Additionally, many injured people may generally feel that they must exaggerate their symptoms in order to be believed or to get the necessary medical treatment they require.  It’s important for us to emphasize to our injured clients that exaggerating symptoms is never a good idea and could result in some very real credibility consequences with the Court, employer and medical professionals.  On a similar note, it’s not uncommon to have some clients underestimate the symptoms they experience, and this also can result in difficulties related to being assigned appropriate work restrictions, getting necessary medical treatment and giving a full picture of the injury itself.

It’s not uncommon in trial for defense attorneys to make light of what they characterize as “exaggerated” pain ratings of 9 or 10.  Additionally, if you are arguing that a condition has gotten worse, it’s difficult to do so when 9 or 10 pain ratings have been given previously.  One colleague recently recounted an exchange during trial which is illustrative.  A client was discussing non-operative back pain to a Judge and had told him his pain was a 10.  When told to imagine Jesus Christ on the cross as the last spear thrust that ended his life as a “10”, and to compare his pain to that the client noted again his non-operable back pain was a “10”.  One can imagine how this client’s credibility may have been negatively impacted by this statement.

The offices of Rehm, Bennett & Moore, which also sponsors the Trucker Lawyers website, are located in Lincoln and Omaha, Nebraska. Five attorneys represent plaintiffs in workers’ compensation, personal injury, employment and Social Security disability claims. The firm’s lawyers have combined experience of more than 95 years of practice representing injured workers and truck drivers in Nebraska, Iowa and other states with Nebraska and Iowa jurisdiction. The lawyers regularly represent hurt truck drivers and often sue Crete Carrier Corporation, K&B Trucking, Werner Enterprises, UPS, and FedEx. Lawyers in the firm hold licenses in Nebraska and Iowa and are active in groups such as the College of Workers’ Compensation Lawyers, Workers' Injury Law & Advocacy Group (WILG), American Association for Justice (AAJ), the Nebraska Association of Trial Attorneys (NATA), and the American Board of Trial Advocates (ABOTA). We have the knowledge, experience and toughness to win rightful compensation for people who have been injured or mistreated.

This entry was posted in Workers' Compensation, Workplace Injury and tagged , , .

Back In The game Or Back To Work Too Soon?

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Senator Dan Quick has introduced employee-friendly legislation

Last weekend’s Big 10 Conference football championship game between Ohio State and Wisconsin contained some off-the-field controversy when former Wisconsin Badger and current Cleveland Browns player, Joe Thomas, criticized the fact that Ohio State starting quarterback J.T. Barrett was playing in the game six days after arthroscopic knee surgery.

While Barrett lead the Buckeyes to victory with 211 passing yards and 60 rushing yards, Thomas argued that college players should have the option of a second opinion when it comes to major surgeries like players do in the NFL. Thomas argued that team doctors are overly influenced by coaches who want players to return to action as soon as possible and that college players are over eager to return to the field.

A similar issue will be debated in Nebraska’s legislature next month. Senator Dan Quick of Grand Island has a bill on the floor that would require an employer to pay for a second opinion if an employee disputes a finding from a doctor paid for by the employer. Quick’s bill was inspired by his experience of being sent back to work prematurely by a doctor chosen by his employer’s workers compensation insurer.

Quick is an electrician by trade and is one of the few blue-collar workers who serves in the Nebraska Legislature. Another blue-collar worker, Lee Carter, was recently elected to the legislature in Virginia. Like Quick, Carter had a bad experience after a work injury. Carter had his hours reduced after his accident and was unable to find a lawyer because of confusion over which state had jurisdiction over his work injury.

Blue collar workers running for office may be a trend as iron worker Randy Bryce is running for Congress against House Speaker Paul Ryan and Wisconsin Firefighter’s union president Mahlon Mitchell is running for Governor of Wisconsin. I am encouraged that people like Dan Quick and Lee Carter have taken their bad experiences after work injuries and have gone into politics to directly address the problems they  faced first hand and make sure other workers will have better experiences if they get hurt on the job.

The offices of Rehm, Bennett & Moore, which also sponsors the Trucker Lawyers website, are located in Lincoln and Omaha, Nebraska. Five attorneys represent plaintiffs in workers’ compensation, personal injury, employment and Social Security disability claims. The firm’s lawyers have combined experience of more than 95 years of practice representing injured workers and truck drivers in Nebraska, Iowa and other states with Nebraska and Iowa jurisdiction. The lawyers regularly represent hurt truck drivers and often sue Crete Carrier Corporation, K&B Trucking, Werner Enterprises, UPS, and FedEx. Lawyers in the firm hold licenses in Nebraska and Iowa and are active in groups such as the College of Workers’ Compensation Lawyers, Workers' Injury Law & Advocacy Group (WILG), American Association for Justice (AAJ), the Nebraska Association of Trial Attorneys (NATA), and the American Board of Trial Advocates (ABOTA). We have the knowledge, experience and toughness to win rightful compensation for people who have been injured or mistreated.

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